Tagged “a11y”

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Buttons and links: definitions, differences and tips

Some of the web’s design and development practices have led to buttons and links becoming conceptually bundled together, confused and misunderstood. Practitioners can be guilty of seeing the surface-level commonality that “you click the thing, then something happens” and mistakenly thinking that they are interchangeable. Some might even consider this all in terms of a single “component”. However this mentality is harmful for effective web development and causes our users problems. In this post I’ll address why buttons and links are different and exist separately, and when to use each.

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Broken Copy, on a11y-101.com

Here’s an accessibility tip that’s new to me. When the content of a heading, anchor, or other semantic HTML element contains smaller “chunks” of span and em (etc), the VoiceOver screen reader on Mac and iOS annoyingly fails to announce the content as a single phrase and instead repeats the parent element’s role for each inner element. We can fix that by adding an inner “wrapper” element inside our parent and giving it role=text.

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Inclusive language around buttons

@Amy_Hupe recently posed a great question on Twitter regarding inclusive language for buttons:

What's an inclusive way to describe what you do to a (digital) button, given it might be pressed with a mouse click, a screen tap, a key on a keyboard, and so on? I've tended to use "select" but wondering if that's right?

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Note · 2:31 PM · Glasgow

Use Mac Zoom to show the text a screen reader gets

I picked up a good accessibility testing tip from my work colleague Max today.

On a Mac, if you open System > Accessibility > Zoom, you can enable “hover text”. This allows you to hold down command (cmd) and then whatever is under the mouse will be shown. This shows the same text that a screen reader sees so it’s good for checking if bits of the page respond to a screen reader.

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Assistiv Labs

A tool for testing how accessible your experience is on various assistive technologies – perhaps “like BrowserStack but for screen readers”?

Assistiv Labs remotely connects you to real assistive technologies, like NVDA, VoiceOver, and TalkBack, using any modern web browser.

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A11y is not “extra effort for people with disabilities”

Strong agree with these sentiments regarding accessibility expressed by Max Böck and Andrey Okonetchnikov on Twitter.

From Andrey:

If you’re building UI, it’s your responsibility to make it work for everyone. Clients often tell me “we don’t care about accessibility” but in reality they do want keyboard support at the very least. So I just build my UI in a way it works without discussing it. It’s my job.

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My Screen Reader Cheatsheet

Here’s a list of useful Screen Reader commands and tips for my reference and yours. This is a work in progress and I’ll update it as I go.

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How-to: Create accessible forms - The A11Y Project

Here are five bite-sized and practical chunks of advice for creating accessible forms.

  1. Always label your inputs.
  2. Highlight input elements on focus.
  3. Break long forms into smaller sections/pages.
  4. Provide error messages (rather than just colour-based indicators)
  5. Avoid horizontal layout forms unless necessary.

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The Atkinson Hyperlegible Font (Braille Institute)

Braille Institute launch a new, free typeface promising greater legibility and readability for low vision readers.

What makes it different from traditional typography design is that it focuses on letterform distinction to increase character recognition, ultimately improving readability.

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How to hide elements on a web page

In order to code modern component designs we often need to hide then reveal elements. At other times we want to provide content to one type of user but hide it from another because it’s not relevant to their mode of browsing. In all cases accessibility should be front and centre in our thoughts. Here’s my approach, heavily inspired by Scott O’Hara’s definitive guide Inclusively Hidden.

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Better Alt Text

I’ve just read The A11Y Project’s page on alt text.

As most of us know, the HTML alt attribute is for providing “alternate text” descriptions of images to help ensure people do not miss out on information conveyed by graphics. This can help people using assistive technology such as screen readers, and in situations where images are slow or fail to load.

The article made some interesting points and even though I’ve been using the alt attribute for years I found three common cases where I could improve how I do things.

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Accessibility (on adactio.com)

Here’s Jeremy Keith, making the moral case for accessible websites and why we shouldn’t use “you can make more money by not turning people away” as an argument:

I understand how it’s useful to have the stats and numbers to hand should you need to convince a sociopath in your organisation, but when numbers are used as the justification, you’re playing the numbers game from then on. You’ll probably have to field questions like ”Well, how many screen reader users are visiting our site anyway?” (To which the correct answer is “I don’t know and I don’t care” – even if the number is 1, the website should still be accessible because it’s the right thing to do.)

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We’ve ruined the Web. Here’s how we fix it. (This is HCD podcast)

During the COVID situation, people have an urgent need to access critical information online. But in 2020, the average webpage is rammed full of large JavaScript files, huge images etc, and as a result is slow to load. This problem is likely to be most keenly felt by those who don’t have the luxury of fast internet – potentially the same people who need access to that critical information the most.

Here’s a brilliant discussion between Gerry McGovern and Jeremy Keith on that problem, suggesting tactics to help fix things such as performance budgets, introducing tactics at the design stage to mimic slow connections and other access constraints, optimising for return visits, progressive enhancement and more.

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Block Links: A tricky UI Problem

You have a “card” component which includes a heading, some text, an image, and a link to the full article, and it’s working great. Then along comes a UX requirement that the full card (not just the button or link) should be clickable. This is where things get complicated.

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HTML: The Inaccessible Parts (daverupert.com)

Here’s Dave Rupert, frustratedly rounding up the accessibility shortfalls in browser implementations of native HTML elements.

I’ve always abided in the idea that “HTML is accessible by default and then we come along and mess it up”. But that’s not always the case. There are some cases where even using plain ol’ HTML causes accessibility problems.

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Are My Colours Accessible?

Colour contrast and the use of colour is extremely important for certain groups of people with varying levels of visional impairment. Building upon the excellent Colorable, I wanted more context around the result. When you share the outcome with your colleagues, all the results, rules and what you’re aiming for, is easily understandable for when you have those awkward conversations with designers and marketers. Accessibility doesn’t have to be ugly.

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The Contrast Triangle

Removing underlines from links in HTML text presents an accessibility challenge. In order for a design to be considered accessible, there is now a three-sided design contraint - or what I call "The Contrast Triangle". Your text, links and background colors must now all have sufficient contrast from each other. Links must have a contrast ratio of 3:1 from their surrounding text. By not using underlines, a design has to rely on contrast alone to achieve this.

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BBC GEL Inclusive Components Technical Guide

The BBC Global Experience Language (GEL) Technical Guides are a series of framework-agnostic, code-centric recommendations and examples for building GEL design patterns in websites. They illustrate how to create websites that comply with all BBC guidelines and industry best practice, giving special emphasis to accessibility.

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Responsive Type and Zoom (by Adrian Roselli)

When people zoom a page, it is typically because they want the text to be bigger. When we anchor the text to the viewport size, even with a (fractional) multiplier, we can take away their ability to do that. It can be as much a barrier as disabling zoom. If a user cannot get the text to 200% of the original size, you may also be looking at a WCAG 1.4.4 Resize text (AA) problem.

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Making a Better Custom Select Element (24 ways)

We want a way for someone to choose an item from a list of options, but it’s more complicated than just that. We want autocomplete options. We want to put images in there, not just text. The optgroup element is ugly, hard to style, and not announced by screen readers. I had high hopes for the datalist element, but it’s no good for people with low vision who zoom or use high contrast themes. select inputs are limited in a lot of ways. Let’s work out how to make our own while keeping all the accessibility features of the original.

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WAVE Web Accessibility Evaluation Tool

The featured article in this week’s Accessibility Weekly newsletter was on recent improvements to the WAVE suite of accessibility testing tools.

I can’t remember using WAVE before, however just one quick test of fuzzylogic.me using their online tool revealed an accessibility issue with the linked SVG logo in the header. A great catch, now fixed, from which I learned something new. I’ll certainly be adding WAVE to my accessibility testing toolbox from here on in.

WAVE is a suite of evaluation tools that help authors make their web content more accessible to individuals with disabilities. WAVE can identify many accessibility and Web Content Accessibility Guideline (WCAG) errors, but also facilitates human evaluation of web content. Our philosophy is to focus on issues that we know impact end users, facilitate human evaluation, and to educate about web accessibility.

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Webfont loading strategies

When it comes to webfonts, if you want to serve an accessible and high performance experience across device types it’s not as straightforward as just specifying your fonts in CSS then hoping for the best.

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Using aria-current is a win-win situation

The HTML attribute aria-current allows us to indicate the currently active element in a sequence. It’s not only great for accessibility but also doubles as a hook to style that element individually.

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